A dual loyalty that often implies to Jews means that they stand for Israel regardless of their country of residence. On the other hand, the principle of Talmud, known as “The law of the state is obligatory for the Jews” (Dina de-Malkhuta Dina), is often seen as a requirement for a Jew to have loyalty to the state where he lives. The identity of many of the USSR Jews in the post-World War II era that combined patriotism to the country of residence and support of Israel was seen as a challenge for the Soviet authorities and often as a reason for repression. Today this phenomenon has a different essence: many post-Soviet states accept the “poly-loyalty” idea, a possibility of double citizenship with Israel, and the development of cultural, scientific, business, and other relations between the two countries.
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